Examining the Impact of Neurofeedback on Brain Waves and Attention-Deficit Rate in Boys with Attention- Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

Document Type : Original Article

Authors

1 Department of Psychology, Marvdasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Marvdasht, Iran

2 Department of Physiology, Shiraz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shiraz, Iran

Abstract

Introduction: Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the prevalent disorders amidst children over the world. Due to the side effects of medications used in the treatment of this disorder, this study aimed to survey the impact of neurofeedback on the treatment of children with ADHD. Methods: This study was a semi-experimental one with pre and post-test design including two groups of control and experiment. It was carried out among 30 students who had been diagnosed as hyperactive by psychiatric experts, performing two questioners of Conner’s parent and teacher plus neurofeedback, in two groups of 15 as experiment and 15 as the control. Subjects in the experimental group underwent neurofeedback training for 20 sessions, while the control group did not receive any instruction. Following the completion of 20 sessions, over, two groups of control and experiment were tested, and the outcomes were regarded through a statistical method of covariance analysis (p≤0.05). Results: The results revealed that neurofeedback training significantly lessened brain waves, problems of consideration, concentration, hyperactivity and impulsivity, attention deficit, the rate of child behavior in the class, group participation and collaboration, attitude towards power authorities (p≤0.05). Conclusion: The results proved that neurofeedback might improve brain waves plus attention deficit hyperactivity decreases in children with ADHD via developing brain excitation.

Keywords


Humphreys KL, Galán CA, Tottenham N, Lee SS. Impaired social decision- making mediates the association between ADHD and social problems. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 2016; 44 (5): 1023- 1032.
Seidman LJ. Neuropsychological functioning in people with ADHD across the lifespan. Clin Psychol Rev. 2006; 26 (4): 466- 485.
Lubar JF. Neurofeedback for the management of attention deficit disorders. Biofeedback: A practitioner’s guide. 2003; 3: 409- 437.
Alizadeh GJ, Bayrami M, Hashemi T. Predicting substance abuse from attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder symptoms in adult. J Res Addict. 2013; 7 (27): 93- 106.
Ahmadlou M, Rostami R, Sadeghi V. Which attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder children will be improved neurofeedback therapy? A graph theoretical approach to neocortex through a neuronal network of ADHD. Neuroscience Lettera. 2012; 516: 156- 160.
Fernández T, Prado Alcalá R, Santiago E, FernándezBouzas A, Harmony T, Belmont H. Positive vs. negative reinforcement in neurofeedback applied to teach disabled children. Clin Neurophysiol. 2008; 119 (9): e163- 171.
Fuchs T, Birbaumer N, LutzenbergerW, Gruzelier JH, Kaiser J. Neurofeedback treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children: a comparison with methylphenidate. Appl Psychophysiol Biofeed. 2003; 28 (1): 1- 12.
Breteler MH, Arns M, Peters S, GiepmansI, Verhoeven L. Improvements in spelling after QEEG-based neurofeedback in dyslexia: A randomized controlled treatment study. Appl Psychophysiol Biofeed. 2010; 35 (1): 5- 11.
Jahanseir M, FiroozAbadi SM, Ghoshouni M, MotieNasrabadi A. The effect of individual upper alpha band enhancing neurofeedback on reaction-time as an indicator of short-term memory in women employees. Iran South Med J. 2014; 17 (5): 834- 846.
Gunkelman JD, Johnstone J. Neurofeedback and the Brain. J Adult Develop. 2005; 12 (2): 93- 98.
Butnik SM. Neurofeedback in adolescents and adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. J Clin Psychol. 2005; 61 (5): 621- 625.
Hammond C. Investigations in neuromodulation, neurofeedback and applied neuroscience. J Neurother. 2011; 15: 305- 336.
Besharat MA, Hamidi S, Rostami R, Farahani H. The effectiveness of neurofeedback training on EEG among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Contemporary Psychol. 2012; 7 (1): 3- 16.
Sadeghi N, Nazari MA, Alizadeh M, Kamali M. The effect of neurofeedback training on EEG and balance performance in children with reading disorder. MRJ. 2013; 7 (3): 32- 39.
Narimani M, Rajabi S, Delavar S. Effects of neurofeedback training on female students with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder. AMUJ. 2013; 16 (2): 91- 103.
Masterpasqua F, Healey KN. Neurofeedback in psychological practice. Prof Psychol Res Pract. 2003; 34: 652- 656.
Loo SK, Barkley RA. Clinical utility of EEG in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Appl Neuropsychol. 2005; 12 (2): 64- 76.
Yaghoubi H, Jazayeri AR, KhoushabiK, Dolatshahi B, Niknam Z. Compare of effectiveness neurofeedback, Ritalin and mix treatment in the reduction of ADHD symptoms. Raftar Daneshvar J. 2008; 15 (31): 71- 84.
Mohammadi MR, Malmir N, Khaleghi A, Aminiorani M. Comparison of sensorimotor rhythm (SMR) and beta training on selective attention and symptoms in children with attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): A trend report. Iranian J Psychiatry. 2015; 10 (3): 165- 174.
Deilami M, Jahandideh A, Kazemnejad Y, Fakour Y, Alipoor S, Rabiee F, et al. The effect of neurofeedback therapy on reducing symptoms associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: A case series study. Basic Clin Neurosci. 2016; 7 (2): 167- 171.
Seilsepour M, Hamounpeyma E, Pirkhaefi A. The effect of neurofeedback therapy sessions on female elementary students with attention deficit and Hyperactivity in Varamin city, in 2013. J Navid. 2015; 18 (60): 24- 33.
Nouri Zadeh N, Mikaeili Mani F, Rostami R, Sadeghi V. The effectiveness of neurofeedback training on comorbid LD and ADHD. J Learn Disabil. 2013; 2 (2): 123- 158.
Lévesque J, Beauregard M, Mensour B. Effect of neurofeedback training on the neural substrates of selective attention in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Neurosci Lett. 2006; 394 (3): 216- 221.
Yaghoubi H, Jazayeri AR, Khoushabi K, Dolatshahi B, Niknam Z. Neurofeedback specification efficacy on intelligent performance of attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder children. Arch Rehabil. 2007; 8: 40- 52.
Rajabi S. Efficacy of neurofeedback in the correct brain’s wave’s amplitude and the visual-motor continuous performance with ADHD. J Psychol. 2015; 19 (1): 53- 70.
Mayer K, Blume F, Wyckoff N, Wyckoff SN, Strehl U. Neurofeedback of slow cortical potentials as a treatment for adults with attention deficit-/ hyperactivity disorder. Clin Neurophysiol. 2016; 127 (2): 1374- 1386.
Lee EJ, Jung CH. Additive effects of neurofeedback on the treatment of ADHD: A randomized controlled study. Asian J Psychiatr. 2017; 25: 16- 21.
Steiner NJ, Frenette EC, Rene KM, Brennan RT, Perrin EC. Neurofeedback and cognitive attention training for children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in schools. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2014; 35 (1): 18- 27.
Kerstin M, Friederike B, Nicole W, Luisa Leonie B, Ute S. Neurofeedback of slow cortical potentials as a treatment for adults with attention deficit-/ hyperactivity disorder. Clin Neurophysiol. 2016; 127 (2): 1374- 1386.
Lee EJ, Jung CH. Additive effects of neurofeedback on the treatment of ADHD: A randomized controlled study. Adv Asian J Psychiatr. 2017; 25: 16- 21.
Steiner NJ, Frenette EC, Rene KM, Brennan RT, Perrin EC. Neurofeedback and cognitive attention training for children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in schools. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2014; 35 (1): 18- 27.
Narimani M, Rajabi S, Delavar S. Effects of neurofeedback training on female students with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder. AMUJ. 2013; 16 (2): 91- 103.
Seilsepour M, Hamounpeyma E, Pirkhaefi A. The effect of neurofeedback therapy sessions on female elementary students with attention deficit and Hyperactivity in varamincity. J Navid. 2015; 18 (60): 24- 33.
Rajabi S. Efficacy of neurofeedback in the correct brain’s wave’s amplitude and the visual-motor continuous performance with ADHD. J Psychol. 2015; 19 (1): 53- 70.