The Interactive Effect of Swimming Training and Curcumin on Bcl- 2 and Bax Gene Expression in the Rat Cardiac Tissue during the Withdrawal Period of Excessive Ethanol Consumption

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Sport Physiology, Larestan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Larestan, Iran

2 Department of Sport Physiology, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

3 Department of Pharmacology, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran


Introduction: Excessive consumption of ethanol can lead to development of apoptosis in cardiac tissue. Then, this study aimed to investigate anti-apoptotic effects of swimming training and curcumin during the withdrawal period of excessive ethanol consumption in rats. Methods: In an experimental study, 40 rats were selected and exposed to ethanol (25% w/v) every eight hours for four days by gavage. After 7 days of quitting ethanol consumption, they were placed in 5 groups of 8 each, including 1- control, 2-curcumin, 3-swimming training, 4-curcumin and swimming training, and 5- DMSO (dimethyl sulfoxide). Groups 3 and 4 performed five swimming training sessions per week for two weeks and groups 2 and 4 were received curcumin (50 mg/kg body weight) five times a week for two weeks by intraperitoneal injection. The two-way ANOVA was used for statistical analysis of data (P≤0.05). Results: Swimming training causes significant increase in Bcl-2 and significant decrease in Bax in the cardiac tissue of the rats received ethanol (P ≤ 0.05). Curcumin also significantly increased Bcl- 2 and decreased Bax (P ≤ 0.05). Curcumin and swimming training have interactive effects on the reduction of Bax in the cardiac tissue of rats (P ≤ 0.05). However, the concurrence of these two factors did not have a significant interactive effect on Bcl-2 elevation and Bax/Bcl- 2 gene expression regulation (P ≥ 0.05). Conclusion: Based on the results, swimming training and curcumin consumption alone had a significant effect on reducing the ethanol-induced apoptosis in cardiac tissues of the rats during the withdrawal period of excessive ethanol use. Furthermore, results showed that swimming training with curcumin consumption had a significant interactive effect on reducing Bax gene expression. However the interactive effect of the combination of training and curcumin on Bcl- 2 and Bax/Bcl- 2 ratio was not significant, but it is more effective than the effect of each intervention alone. Consequently, it seems that the combination of swimming training and curcumin may be used during the withdrawal period of excessive ethanol consumption to modulate apoptotic process.


1. Rodriguez A. Alcohol and apoptosis: friends or foes?. Biomolecules. 2015; 5 (4): 3193- 3203.
2. Haghdoost AA, Emami M, Esmaili M, Soberinia A, NezhadGhaderi M, Mehrolhassani M H. Survey the status and causes of alcohol consumption: A case study of the epidemic alcohol poisoning in rafsanjan in 2013. JRUMS. 2015; 13 (10): 991- 1006.
3. Zerehpoosh M. Evalution the effect of ginger hydro-alcoholic extract on the heart dysfunctions induced by alcohol in rat. Urmia Med J. 2016; 26 (12): 1095- 1101.
4. Salmaninejad A, Kangari P, Shakoori A. Oxidative stress: development and progression of breast cancer. Tehran Univ Med Sci J. 2017; 75 (1): 1- 9.
5. Montazeri F, Rahgozar S, Ghaedi K. Apoptosis and cytosolic organelles. Genet in 3rd Millennium. 2011; 9 (1): 2300- 2312.
6. Kakarla P, Kesireddy S, Christiaan L. Exercise training with ageing protects against ethanol induced myocardial glutathione homeostasis. Free Radical Res. 2008; 42 (5): 428- 434.
7. Lee SD. Effects of exercise training on cardiac apoptosis in obese rats. Nutr Metab Cardiovascular Diseases. 2013; 23 (6): 566- 573.
8. Jafari A. Effect of exercise training on Bcl- 2 and Bax gene expression in the rat heart. Gene Cell Tissue. 2015; 2 (4): 8- 15.
9. Pushpalatha K, Nishanth K. Myocardial antioxidant status and oxidative stress after combined action of exercise training and ethanol in two different age groups of male albino rats. Acta Biologica Hungarica. 2007; 58 (2): 173- 185.
10. Aggarwal BB, Surh YJ, Shishodia S. The molecular targets and therapeutic uses of curcumin in health and disease. Springer Science & Business Media. 2007.
11. Yu W, Xu G, Ren GJ, Xu X, Yuan HQ, Qi XL, Tian KL. Preventive action of curcumin in experimental acute pancreatitis in mouse. Indian J Med Res. 2011; 134 (5): 717.
12. Tiwari V, Chopra K. Attenuation of oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and apoptosis by curcumin prevents cognitive deficits in rats postnatally exposed to ethanol. Psychopharmacology. 2012; 224 (4): 519- 535.
13. Ramachandran C. Expression profiles of apoptotic genes induced by curcumin in human breast cancer and mammary epithelial cell lines. Anticancer Res. 2005; 25 (5): 3293- 3302.
14. Shin HJ. Curcumin attenuates the kainic acid-induced hippocampal cell death in the mice. Neuroscience Letters. 2007; 416 (1): 49- 54.
15. Bulku E. Curcumin exposure modulates multiple pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic signaling pathways to antagonize acetaminophen-induced toxicity. Current Neurovascular Res. 2012; 9 (1): 58- 71.
16. Maynard ME, Leasure JL. Exercise enhances hippocampal recovery following binge ethanol exposure. PloS One. 2013; 8 (9): e76644.
17. Kazemnejad A. Preparing the geographical maps of the relative death rate out of vasco- cardiac diseases in cities of the mazandaran province in 2008. J Mazandaran Univ Med Sci. 2012; 22 (94): 63- 69.
18. Hintz KK. Cardiac overexpression of alcohol dehydrogenase exacerbates cardiac contractile dysfunction, lipid peroxidation, and protein damage after chronic ethanol ingestion. Alcoholism Clin Experimental Res. 2003; 27 (7): 1090- 1098.
19. Santana ET. Aerobic exercise training induces an anti-apoptotic milieu in myocardial tissue. Motriz: Revista de Educação Física. 2014; 20 (2): 233- 238.
20. Li L. Moderate exercise prevents neurodegeneration in D-galactose-induced aging mice. Neural Regeneration Res. 2016; 11 (5): 807.
21. Beltrán B, Mathur A, Duchen MR, Erusalimsky JD, Moncada S. The effect of nitric oxide on cell respiration: a key to understanding its role in cell survival or death. Proceedings National Academy Sci. 2000; 97 (26): 14602- 14607.
22. Su SH, Jen CJ, Chen HI. NO signaling in exercise training-induced anti-apoptotic effects in human neutrophils. Biochem Biophy Res Communications. 2011; 405 (1): 58- 63.
23. Seppet E. Adaptation of cardiac and skeletal muscle mitochondria to endurance training: implications for cardiac protection, in Cardiac Adaptations. Springer. 2013.
24. Seo H. Effects of voluntary exercise on apoptosis and cortisol after chronic restraint stress in mice. J Exer Nutr Biochem. 2016; 20 (3): 16.
25. Sandri M. Apoptosis, DNA damage and ubiquitin expression in normal and mdx muscle fibers after exercise. FEBS Letters. 1995; 373 (3): 291- 295.
26. Qiguan J. The effects of chronic exhaustive training on apoptosis of muscles rats. Sport Scie J. 1999; 5: 006.
27. Maheshwari RK. Multiple biological activities of curcumin: a short review. Life Sci. 2006; 78 (18): 2081- 2087.
28. Lv X. Berberine inhibits doxorubicin-triggered cardiomyocyte apoptosis via attenuating mitochondrial dysfunction and increasing Bcl-2 expression. PloS One. 2012; 7 (10): e47351.
29. Somasundaram S. Dietary curcumin inhibits chemotherapy-induced apoptosis in models of human breast cancer. Cancer Res. 2002; 62 (13): 3868- 3875.
30. Ghoneim AI. Effects of curcumin on ethanol-induced hepatocyte necrosis and apoptosis: implication of lipid peroxidation and cytochrome c. Naunyn- Schmiedeberg's Archives Pharm. 2009; 379 (1): 47.
31. Wang L. Curcumin prevents the non-alcoholic fatty hepatitis via mitochondria protection and apoptosis reduction. Int J Clin Experiment Pathology. 2015; 8 (9): 11503.
32. Yu W. Curcumin protects neonatal rat cardiomyocytes against high glucose-induced apoptosis via PI3K/Akt signalling pathway. J Diabetes Res. 2016; 4158591: 1- 11.
33. Yan X. Inhibition of histone acetylation by curcumin reduces alcohol-induced fetal cardiac apoptosis. J Biomed Sci. 2017; 24 (1): 1.
34. Tao P, Yin H, Ma Y. Study of the mechanisms of curcumin on mitochondrial permeability transition of hepatocytes in rats with sepsis. Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing JI Jiu Yi Xue. 2014; 26 (9): 666- 670.
35. Sadat-Hoseini SK, Dabidi Roshan V. The interactive effects of two forced and voluntary exercise training method and Nanocurcumin supplement on doxorubicin-induced hepatotoxicity in aging induced by D-galactos. Tehran Univ Med J. 2017; 74 (11): 807- 816.