Effectiveness of Exercise Activity on Mental Health, Depression and Life Expectancy of Improved Addicts

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Sport Science, Jahrom University, Jahrom, Iran

2 Department of Sport Management, School of Sport Science, Allameh Tabatabae'i University, Tehran, Iran

3 Department of Exercise Physiology, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran

4 Department of Sport Science, School of Literature and Humanities, Jahrom University, Jahrom, Iran.


Introduction: Drug abuse can affect the mental, physical and social health of individuals. In this regard, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise activity on mental health, depression and life expectancy of improved addicts. Methods: 86 patients from Jahrom City, who had stopped at least one year taking any drugs were voluntarily selected and divided into active (n=34) (Mean ± SD; aged: 36.44 ± 9.91 yrs., height: 177.55 ± 6.96 cm., weight: 79.63 ± 7.60 kg) and inactive (n=52) (Mean ± SD; aged: 39.22 ± 9.24 yrs., height: 173.54 ± 8.05 cm., weight: 76.98 ± 10.77kg) groups. General health questionnaire (GHQ) and Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI) were used for data collection. Data analysis was done by U Mann Whitney test were using SPSS 18 software (p≤0.05). Results: The results showed that the mean mental health of the active group was significantly lower than the inactive group (p = 0.008). Additionally, the active group was significantly less depressed than its inactive counterparts (p = 0.001). Furthermore, the active group had a higher life expectancy than the inactive group, although this difference was not statistically significant (p= 0.36). Conclusion: According to the results of the study, active improved addicts had a better status in mental health, depression and life expectancy than inactive people.


1. Haydari J, Jafari H, Hosseini SH, Janati Y, Mohammadpour RA, Ghahramani M. Study on the psychosocial conditions of addicts in Sari township in 2004. J Mazandaran Univ Med Sci. 2006; 16 (52): 109- 117.
2. Habibi R, Talaei A, Ebrahimzadeh S, Moneghi Karimi H. The effect of family- centered problem solving teaching method upon the self esteem in drug- dependent clients. Mashhad Univ Med Sci J. 2012; 55 (1): 52- 59.
3. Jalilian F, Mirzaei Alavijeh M, Amoei MR, Zinat Motlagh F, Hatamzadeh N, Allahverdipour H. Prevalence and pattern of drug abuse among prisoners in Kermanshah city. Iran J Health Educ Health Promot. 2013; 1 (2): 41- 48.
4. Amani F, Sadeghieh S, Salamati P. Characteristics of self introduced addicts in Ardebil. J Payesh. 2005; 4 (1): 55- 59.
5. Sadeghi N, Davari E, Ziaeibrad M, Ghoddoosi A. Quality of life and its relation to background characteristics and relationships in the family in adolescents and young people referring to addiction treatment centers. Iran J Social Health. 2015; 15 (57): 57- 72.
6. Shirsavar MH, Amirtash AM, Jalali S, Koshan M, Keyvanloo F, SeyyedAhmadi M. Comparing the effectiveness of rehabilitation methods with and without exercise on quality of life and self-steam addicts Quarterly. J Sabzevar Univ Med Sci. 2013; 20 (3): 292- 301.
7. Hojjati H, Aloustani S, Akhondzadeh G, Heidari B, Sharif_Nia H. Study of mental health and its relation with quality of life in addicts. SSUJ. 2010; 18 (3): 207- 214.
8. Efati M, Kafie Masole M, Delazar R. The study of mental health and its relationship with quality of life in substance dependents. J Res Addict. 2012; 6 (22): 55- 64.
9. Kazemiyan S, Delavar A. Effectiveness of life review therapy on general health improvement in addicts voluntarily seeking therapy. J Clin Psychol. 2012; 1 (5): 75- 90.
10. Hejazi M, Sobhi A, Sadeghi Jahan A. Efficacy of life skills training on reducing anxiety and depression in drug dependent subjects. ZUMS. 2016; 24 (104): 20- 28.
11. Mancheri H, Sharifi Neyestanak ND, Seyedfatemi N, Heydari M, Ghodoosi M. Psychosocial problems of families living with an addicted family member. IJN. 2013; 26 (83): 48- 56.
12. Amiri M. Depression is one of the most common psychological disorders that comorbids with substance use disorders. Res Addict. 2009; 3 (9): 101- 114.
13. Prusakowski MK, Shofer FS, Rhodes KV, Mills AM. Effect of depression and psychosocial stressors on cessation self-efficacy in mothers who smoke. Matern Child Health J. 2011; 15 (5): 620- 626.
14. Statham DJ, Connor JP, Kavanagh DJ, Feeney G, Young RD, May J, et al. Measuring alcohol craving: development of the alcohol craving experience questionnaire. Addict J. 2011; 106 (7): 1230- 1238.
15. Shahmoradi A, ali Mohammadifar M, Khazem Fakhri M. The effect of methadone maintenance treatment on health psyche and having hope in drug addicted persons. Res Addict. 2011; 4 (16): 73- 84.
16. Ramazani Negad R, Niazi SM, Hematinezhad M. Comparing general health between participated people in sport activity and inactive people quarterly. J Sport Sci. 2010; 2 (4): 49- 66.
17. Zarepoor F, Kamali M, Alagheband M, Gheisari M, Sarlak S. Evaluation of depression and its relationship to exercise in women over 20 years. Shahid Sadoughi Univ Med Sci J. 2012; 20 (1): 64- 72.
18. Zardoshtian S, Norouzi R. The effect of physical activity on quality of life and life expectancy In the elderly Fars province. JSM. 2014; 5 (17): 137- 157.
19. Kazemi A, Mahdavinejad R, Ghasemi G, Sadeghi M. Effects of an 8-week exercise with Physioball on the correction of thoracic kyphosis, balance and quality of life in addicted men after quitting drugs. JRSR. 2013; 9 (2): 328- 337.
20. Tofighi A, Babaei S, Eloon Kashkuli F, Babaei R. The relationship between the amount of physical activity and general health in Urmia medical university students. Urmia Nurs Midwifery Fac J. 2014; 12 (3): 166- 172.
21. Kashefi M, Arab Ameri E, Davoud H. The relationship between exercise and gender in mental health of staff of red crescent society of tehran. Sci J Rescue Relief. 2014; 5 (4): 46- 54.
22. Kargarfard M, Dehghani M, Heidari A. Effect of a period of aquatic exercise therapy on the quality of life, anxiety and depression in patients with hemophilia. Koomesh J. 2011; 12 (4): 364- 367.
23. Motaghi M. The effect of physical exercise on mild postpartum depression and related factors among women referring to kashan health centers, 2011. Urmia Nurs Midwifery Fac J. 2013; 11 (5): 363- 368.
24. Tahmasebi A, Zarshenas S, Houshvar P, Karimian J, Shekarchizadeh P. The effect of endurance exercises on occupational performance areas and the depression severity of students in isfahan university of medical sciences. JRRS. 2013; 9 (3): 480- 489.
25. Lee IM, Shiroma EJ, Lobelo F, Puska P, Blair SN, Katzmarzyk PT, et al. Effect of physical inactivity on major non-communicable diseases worldwide: an analysis of burden of disease and life expectancy. Lancet. 2012; 380 (9838): 219- 229.
26. Moore SC, Patel AV, Matthews CE, de Gonzalez AB, Park Y, Katki HA, et al. Leisure time physical activity of moderate to vigorous intensity and mortality: a large pooled cohort analysis. PLoS Med. 2012; 9 (11): e1001335.
27. Ebrahimi A, Molavi H, Moosavi G, Bornamanesh A, Yaghobi M. Psychometric properties and factor structure of general health questionnaire 28 (GHQ- 28) in iranian psychiatric patients. Res Behav Sci J. 2007; 5 (1): 5- 12.
28. Zarepoor F, Kamali M, Alagheband M, Gheisari M, Sarlak S. Evaluation of depression and its relationship to exercise in women over 20 years. SSUJ. 2012; 20 (1): 64- 72.
29. Khaledian M, Gharibi H, Gholizadeh Z, Shakeri R. The impact of group cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) on depression decrease and hopefulness increase of empty nest syndrome. J Family Counsel Psycho. 2013; 3 (2): 261- 279.
30. Khaledian M, Mohammadifar MA. On the effectiveness of group cognitive- behavioral therapy and logotherapy in reducing depression and increasing life expectancy in drug addicts. J Res Addict. 2016; 9 (39): 63- 80.
31. Arabameri E, Taheri M, Irani K. The effect of water-based exercise programs and KSD protocol on general health questionnaire and optimal physical fitness factors affecting female elders balance. J Motor Behav. 2014; 6 (16): 15- 28.
32. Moosavirad S, Keshavarz L. Relation of between how leisure and mental health teachers athletes and non-athlet shahin shahr city. J Organ Behav Managem Spor Studi. 2015; 2 (6): 73- 80.
33. Soltani Shal R, Aghamohammadian S, GHanaei CA. Effect of exercise on general health, quality of sleep and quality of life in ferdowsi university of mashhad students. Qazvin Univ Med Sci J. 2013; 17 (4): 39- 46.
34. Anbari S, Moghadasi M, Torkfar A, Rahimezadeh E, Khademi Y. The effects of the recommended eight- weeks sports-for- all program on physical fitness and general health of male employees. Armaghanedanesh J. 2012; 17 (1): 40- 49.
35. Hekmati Pour N, Hojjati H, Sharif Nia H, Akhondzade G, Nikjou AR, MirAbolhasani M. Effect of exercise on depression in elderly.
Iran J Health Educ Health Promot. 2013; 1 (3): 23- 32.
36. Wen CP, Wai JPM, Tsai MK, Yang YC, Cheng TYD, Lee M-C, et al. Minimum amount of physical activity for reduced mortality and extended life expectancy: a prospective cohort study. Lancet. 2011; 378 (9798): 1244- 1253.
37. de Rezende LFM, Rabacow FM, Viscondi JYK, Luiz OdC, Matsudo VKR, Lee I-M. Effect of physical inactivity on major noncommunicable diseases and life expectancy in brazil. JPAH. 2015; 12 (3): 299- 306.
38. Nourshahi M, Rahmani H, Zahedi H, Rajaeyan A. Correlation of mountaineering with cardiovascular and physicalhealth in the elderly. Iranian J Ageing. 2009; 4 (3): 43- 56.
39. Rahmani Ghobadi M, Hoseini R. The
relationship of physical activity and risk factors of coronary heart disease (CHD) in older men. Salmand J. 2015; 9 (4): 316- 323.
40. Pronk NP, Crouse SF, Rohack JJ. Maximal exercise and acute mood response in women. Physiol Behav. 1995; 57 (1): 1- 4.
41. Shahivandi A, Masoud M, Soltani T, Soltani M. The role of planning and tailoring of urban sport facilities in increasing physical activity and community participation a case study of arak city’s citizens with hearing and motor disabilities. MEJDS. 2014; 4 (1): 50- 58.
42. Stubbe J, De Moor M, Boomsma D, de Geus EJC. The association between exercise participation and well-being: a co-twin study. PMJ. 2007; 44 (2): 148- 152.
43. Salesi M, Jowkar B. Effects of exercise and physical activity on happiness of postmenopausal female. Iranian J Ageing. 2011; 6 (2): 7- 14.